Blog de Raíz Cimentaciones

 

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Existen varios tipos de terrenos problemáticos para el apoyo de cimentaciones de edificios. A continuación se van a enumerar los más habituales y a describir sus características:

Rellenos:

Los rellenos son materiales que pueden presentar unas características y procedencia muy diversas. Puede tratarse de un terreno natural excavado y depositado en otra zona (pudiendo haber pasado por un proceso de selección y compactación). Puede ser un terreno parcial o totalmente compuesto por escombros, tierras vegetales y otros restos. Normalmente se trata de un terreno insuficientemente compactado y con presencia de material degradable. Sus características geotécnicas son, generalmente, inadecuadas para el apoyo de cimentaciones. Como consecuencia de su presencia se suelen dar asientos excesivos, que pueden ser diferenciales, si la heterogeneidad del material así lo produce.

Asiento diferencial por presencia de rellenos en una zona de apoyo

Imagen nº 1: Asiento diferencial por presencia de rellenos en una zona de apoyo.

Raíz Cimentaciones trata estos problemas mediante inyecciones de consolidación del terreno y/o micropilotes.


Arcillas expansivas:

En primer lugar hay que aclarar que no todos los materiales expansivos son arcillas y que el término "expansivo" es inapropiado, siendo más correcto la denominación "fluctuante". Un terreno de estas características sufre cambios de volumen, que pueden ser escasos o muy importantes, con los cambios de humedad. Cuando la humedad del terreno aumenta, el terreno gana volumen (hinchamiento), pudiendo - en casos extremos - producir empujes ascendentes en las estructuras. Generalmente se da el fenómeno contrario, el colapso por desecación del terreno. La pérdida de volumen en los estratos superficiales suele tener como consecuencia el despegue de las cimentaciones, la ruptura y su colapso. Esto provoca la aparición de grietas y desniveles. Suele afectar en mayor medida a la zona perimetral de los edificios y sigue ciclos invierno-verano.

Grietas de retracción de las arcillas expansivas, con pérdida de volumen

Imagen nº 2: Grietas de retracción de las arcillas expansivas, con pérdida de volumen.

Este fenómeno comienza a actuar desde el momento de la construcción y no cesa, afectando a los 2 m de terreno superficial. A partir de esa profundidad el terreno mantiene su humedad constante a pesar de las variaciones climatológicas. Se puede comprobar la existencia de un terreno fluctuante mediante ensayos de laboratorio. Para evitar este fenómeno hay que realizar el apoyo de la cimentación a una profundidad mayor. Normalmente la presencia de un sótano es suficiente para que no se manifiesten las consecuencias.

Raíz Cimentaciones trata estos problemas mediante micropilotes in situ o hincados hidráulicamente.


Terrenos colapsables:

Se trata de un terreno de apoyo de una cimentación, que sufre un aumento de humedad repentino (saturación), dando como consecuencia un asiento brusco y espontáneo, mayor cuanto más presión transmite la estructura y menor era la humedad en el momento de la saturación (inundación). De ello se puede deducir que no se produce este fenómeno en terrenos situados bajo el nivel freático.

Efecto de un colapso del terreno en un edificio

Imagen nº 3: Efecto de un colapso del terreno en un edificio.

La mejor forma de prevenir este problema es evitar la inundación del terreno, pero esto puede no ser posible, por ejemplo en zonas donde hay fluctuaciones del nivel freático. Por ello, Raíz Cimentaciones recurre a los micropilotes para evitar que se produzcan estos asientos repentinos.


Terrenos solubles:

Algunas materiales, especialmente calcáreos y yesíferos, son solubles en agua, lo que puede producir fenómenos de karstificación, es decir, alteración química por la circulación de agua. Esto suele producir la presencia de cuevas, simas y otras formas kársticas. La presencia de cavidades en el terreno bajo un edificio, puede provocar el colapso de la cimentación.

Morfología kárstica con colapsos por solubilidad de la roca

Imagen nº 4: Morfología kárstica con colapsos por solubilidad de la roca.

Este problema se puede tratar mediante el relleno de la cavidad o con micropilotes, si las características del terreno lo permiten.


Terrenos naturales poco compactos o consistentes:

Algunos terrenos naturales son blandos o flojos, normalmente porque se trata de terrenos recientes que no han tenido una historia de consolidación por enterramiento. Ejemplos de estos terrenos son los depósitos aluviales, relacionados con cauces fluviales, depósitos de erosión de una ladera (coluviales) o mixtos, en los que se unen los flujos de agua y la pendiente del terreno.

Patología de asiento diferencial consecuencia de un terreno blando

Imagen nº 5: Patología de asiento diferencial consecuencia de un terreno blando.

Dependiendo de las características del terreno, Raíz Cimentaciones trata estos problemas mediante inyecciones de consolidación del terreno y/o micropilotes.

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