07 Abr

Pasos para resolver un problema de grietas en un edificio

En este artículo hablamos de los pasos que hay que dar para resolver los problemas de grietas en un edificio. Son los siguientes

Cuando un edificio o vivienda presenta grietas o fisuras, evidencia la existencia de un problema, una patología (una enfermedad en definitiva del edificio), que podría estar relacionado con la cimentación y/o con el terreno. El primer paso es diagnósticar el tipo de problema que presenta, para lo cual hay que contar con un especialista en la evaluación de las patologías de edificación. Esta persona identificará las zonas afectadas, el grado de importancia del problema, la necesidad de tomar medidas inmediatas para garantizar la seguridad y cual podría ser la causa (un deterioro del terreno, un error constructivo o de cálculo u otra causa externa).

grietas edificio vivienda patologia

Si no hay seguridad sobre si el problema sigue activo, la mejor decisión es realizar una auscultación o control, ya sea mediante fisurómetros, testigos, métodos topográficos o cualquier otro método disponible. Este control se ha de mantener un tiempo, un año mínimo, salvo que las grietas presenten una evolución muy rápida, de forma que se pueda evaluar si el avance sigue un patrón continuo, estacional o brusco. 

fisurómetro control patologías grietas

En el caso de que haya una completa seguridad acerca de que el problema tiene relación con la cimentación y/o el terreno, hay que detectar la causa, lo que puede pasar por algunos de los siguientes pasos:

- Realizar un informe técnico.

- Realizar un estudio del terreno, bien sea geotécnico (con métodos directos) o geofísico (métodos indirectos).

- Realizar una inspección de la red de saneamiento.

- Realizar una comprobación de la cimentación, ya sea con una calicata o con perforaciones y tomas de testigos.

Con las conclusiones de los anteriores pasos, se procede a la realización de un proyecto de recalce de la cimentación, mediante la metodología que se haya considerado más adecuada.

El objetivo es valorar económicamente los trabajos previstos en el proyecto, para estudiar las formas de financiarla o conocer la cantidad que se ha de reclamar al individuo o entidad que se considere responsable de los daños.

A partir de ahí se planifican los trabajos y la afección de los mismos al desarrollo del uso normal del edificio.

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